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Culture

Song Dynasty

时间:2013/3/12 14:08:10 作者:learnmorechina 来源: 查看:115 评论:0

In 960 a new power, Song (960-1279), reunified most of China Proper. The Song period divides into two phases: Northern Song (960-1127) and Southern Song (1127-1279). The division was caused by the forced abandonment of north China in 1127 by the Song court, which could not push back the nomadic invaders.

 

The founders of the Song dynasty built an effective centralized bureaucracy staffed with civilian scholar-officials. Regional military governors and their supporters were replaced by centrally appointed officials. This system of civilian rule led to a greater concentration of power in the emperor and his palace bureaucracy than had been achieved in the previous dynasties.

The Song dynasty is notable for the development of cities not only for administrative purposes but also as centers of trade, industry, and maritime commerce.

Regarding to the culture, the Song refined many of the developments of the previous centuries. Included in these refinements were not only the Tang ideal but also historical writings, painting, calligraphy, and hard-glazed porcelain.


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